|Description||The problem: Healthcare executives face significant challenges leading
their organizations through increased consumer demands, decreased funding,
regulatory intervention, and professional staff shortages. There is a need to
understand the type of leadership that exists and that which would be most
effective in addressing these challenges.
Procedure: Sixty-three of Iowa's 116 hospital CEOs completed the
Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) about their leadership behaviors and
traits. Additionally, 290 of their associates (superiors, peers, and subordinates)
rated the CEOs using the same tool, resulting in a leadership profile for each
CEO. The CEOs also completed the Rokeach Values Survey (RVS) and a sixitem
Findings: The associate raters characterized the CEOs as displaying
transformational behaviors and traits fairly often (3.23, on a scale of 0-4),
transactional behaviors sometimes (2.40), and passive-avoidant behaviors once
in a while (0.92). Leadership styles strongly correlated with the raters'
assessment of extra effort, satisfaction and perception of CEO effectiveness.
Transformational leadership was highly correlated with increased levels of extra
effort, satisfaction, and perception of CEO effectiveness, while high passiveavoidant
scores negatively correlated with the same factors. Leadership styles,
when correlated with the CEOs' values, age, gender, years of experience,
leadership training, and hospital size and setting, mostly offered weak
correlations of little practical value.
Conclusions: Hospital CEOs have self-perceptions, and are viewed by
others as having transformational leadership qualities. Transformational
leadership, which has been correlated with positive organizational outcomes, will
serve hospital CEOs well as they address the needs of their organizations.
Individuals concerned with recruiting and retaining hospital CEOs should
consider focusing their attention on leadership style rather than the factors of
age, gender, years of experience, or hospital size or setting.
Recommendations: (1) Address the relationship between leadership style
and organizational outcomes. (2) Determine the degree to which transformational
leadership permeates the organization. (3) Assess the value and effectiveness of
transformational leadership training in healthcare settings. (4). Determine the
benefit of a transformational leadership model in recruiting, retaining and
supporting hospital CEOs.||en