ItemEvaluation of an Interprofessional Poverty Simulation Experience(2018-07) Clarke, Cheryl L.; Derrick, Shelby J.Objectives: To evaluate the results of poverty simulation exercises when conducted as an interprofessional education (IPE) activity. Objectives were to determine if participating students demonstrated changes in 1) Attitude toward poverty and 2) Perceptions of interprofessional teamwork. Method: Two Missouri Association for Community Action Poverty Simulation exercises were conducted for an interprofessional student mix including Doctor of Pharmacy, Doctorate of Occupational Therapy, and Bachelor of Science in Nursing students. Students were randomly assigned to simulated family units with various life circumstances, while ensuring a mix of healthcare professional students per family. The families simulated typical daily living activities during 4 periods designated as weeks. Following the simulations, students participated in debriefing sessions to discuss their experience, including questions specific to interprofessionalism. Prior to and following the simulations, students completed two surveys: Attitude Toward Poverty Short Form (ATP-SF) and Refinement of the Interprofessional Socialization and Valuing Scale (ISVS-9). Paired-samples t-tests were used to determine the results. Results: Statistically significant improvements in attitude toward poverty were noted in 14 items on the 21-item ATP-SF. The domains of stigma and structural perspective showed statistically significant improvement while the personal deficiency domain did not. Statistically significant improvements in student perceptions related to interprofessional teamwork were not found using the ISVS-9 scale. Implications: An improved attitude toward poverty was measured for the domains of stigma and structural perspective following participation in a poverty simulation. An improvement in interprofessional teamwork was not found. The ISVS-9 may not have been an appropriate tool for this purpose. Item"Use of a nonprescription medicine formulary assignment to help fulfill an ability-based outcome"(American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy, 1999) Krypel, Linda L.This paper describes how the development of a formulary helped students achieve an outcome ability in a nonprescription medicines course. For the nonprescription medicines course, ability-based outcomes were determined that were integrated, developmental and transferable. One outcome was an ability to make justifiable nonprescription medicine recommendations. The formulary assignment provided two and often three opportunities to extensively practice the desired outcome with feedback on performance criteria. The results of student evaluations regarding the usefulness of such an assignment as an effective learning tool are positive. Item"Current practices and anticipated changes in academic and nonacademic admission sources for entry-level PharmD programs"(American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy, 2000) Chesnut, Renae J.; Phillips, Charles R.The purpose of this study was to describe and compare current admission practices with anticipated changes in academic and nonacademic admission information sources for entry-level PharmD programs. An author-constructed survey collected data from pharmacy programs on current and anticipated admission processes. After follow-up efforts, a 92 percent response rate was achieved. Results suggest that a lack of significant changes can be expected between admission practices used for the Fall 1997 entering class and those anticipated for Fall 2000. Likewise, applicant qualities sought and information sources used to measure these qualities are not expected to change significantly prior to the Fall 2000 entering class. This study indicated that most pharmacy programs utilize academic and nonacademic admission information sources and that they feel they are meeting the adopted ACPE Standard and Guideline 16.3 which requires that pharmacy programs use information sources in the admission process other than academic information. Item"Assessing Pharmacy Students' Learning Styles and Personality Types: A Ten-Year Analysis "(American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy, 1999) Shuck, Avis A.; Phillips, Charles R.A ten-year analysis of 1,313 Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is presented to address learning styles in pharnacy students. Objectives were to present a ten-year view of pharmacy student's learning styles, identify differences in pharmacy students versus the general college student population, and compare personality types of students choosing to track into the PharmD Program with those in the BS Pharmacy program. Compared to the general college poplation, the distribution of pharmacy students differed in several personality types measured by the Myerss-Briggs Type Indicator. Generally, Drake pharmacy student's modal type remained introvert, Sensing, Thinking, Judging, (ISTJ) to Introvert, Sensing, Feeling, Judging (ISFJ) for the ten years of data. Female pharmacy students were 72 percent more likely to have feeling as a dominant function. Females were also more likely to have a judging preference. When compared to BS Pharmacy students, PharmD students were more than three times more likely to be Extraverted, Intuitive, Feeling, Judging (ENFJ). This analysis provided learning and teaching style information for both students and faculty. It is timely as colleges attempt to change students to independent learners. The key to successfully implementing ability-based outcomes and active learning may lie with the use of a variety of strategies that help students with different preferences. Item"The California critical thinking instruments for benchmarking, program assessment, and directing curricular change"(American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy, 2004) Phillips, Charles R.; Chesnut, Renae J.; Rospond, Raylene M.Objectives. To assess pharmacy students’ critical thinking (CT) measures and identify areas for curricular reform. Methods. Pharmacy students were given the California Critical Thinking Skills Test and Disposition Index at various points in the PharmD program. Scores were compared with a national referent group and evaluated for changes across the curriculum and between classes. Results. Students were comparable to national norms. Pretest and posttest scores for total disposition showed improvement. Scores in all subcategories except for truth-seeking were consistently above 40. The CT skills of the pharmacy students varied compared with those of referent students, but the pharmacy students’ overall score of 18 was in the 73rd percentile. Pre- and post-skills scores showed improvement. Students scoring low on the pretest improved more than those scoring high. Conclusions. Students had a consistent disposition towards CT and compared favorably to national norms. Both disposition and skills improved across the curriculum. Dimensions of critical thinking on which students score low should be areas for curricular and other program changes.