The Identification and Comparison of the Flavonoids in the Flowers of Campanula Rapunculoides L. and Campanula Americana L.
Buckles, Walter Eugene
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The problem. The purpose of this study was to identify and compare the flavonoids found in the flowers of Campanula rapunculoides L. and C. americana L. Procedure. Flavonoids were extracted in 1% HCl-methanol solution and concentrated on a rotary vacuum evaporator. Filter paper chromatography was used to separate and purify the pigments. Both crude and purified pigments were hydrolyzed and tests run to gain information about the aglycones and attached sugars. A spectrophotometer was used to record the absorption spectra of purified pigments. Findings. Two anthocyanins which appear to be glycosides of delphinidin and another flavonoid which may be a 7,8-dihydroxyflavanone were found in both C. rapunculoides and C. americana. Vitexin and luteolin were found in C. americana but not in C. rapunculoides. C. rapunculoides contains an unidentified, blue florescing flavonoid not found in C. americana. Conclusions. It was shown that C. rapunculoides and C. americana share three flavonoids while there are two in C. americana and one in C. rapunculoides which are not shared. Recommendations. Further work is needed to isolate and identify the sugar attachments on the flavonoids. Other species of Campanula need to be examined to show their relationship to C. americana and C. rapunculoides.