The Effect of Career Awareness and Exploration Grants on Career Education Efforts in Iowa Schools
The Problem. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the "seed money" given to school districts for Career Awareness and Exploration (CA&E) grants had a lasting effect. The following objectives were established to study the problem: to determine the difference in the status of career education in school districts which received funding and school districts which did not receive funding; to determine what differences exist in the perceptions of various educational role groups of the status of career education in school districts which did receive funding; to determine what differences exist in the perceptions of various educational role groups of the status of career education in school districts which did not receive funding; to determine what differences exist in the perceptions of educational role groups concerning the status of career education between those who were employed at the time funding occurred and those who have been employed since funding ceased. Procedure. An original survey instrument was developed that included four questionnaire sections: Administration, Personnel, School and Community Relations, and Curriculum. Perceptions of superintendents, principals, counselors, and teachers on the current status of career education were assessed. Thirty school districts were identified for the purpose of this study. Fifteen school districts comprised the first groups which participated in the CA&E grants from 1973-74 through 1975-76 inclusive. A second group of fifteen districts which had not been funded were matched with the fifteen funded districts. Within the funded districts, the personnel groups were defined as to time of employment, either when funding occurred or after funding ceased. For each individual a yes to no score ratio for each section of the questionnaire was tabulated. The mean ratios for each educational role group were used for the analysis. Four t tests (p<.OS, .01) for independent samples were calculated for each of the four sections of the instrument. This sample procedure was utilized in the examination of the perceptions of the funded district personnel by time of employment. A one-way ANOVA (p<.05, p<:Ol) was utilized to study the differences among the perceptions of the four role groups in funded and non-funded distrlcts. Findings. Study findings indicate there was a difference in the status of career education in funded and nonfunded schools on the administrative and curricular indicators of career education program development, but not on the personnel, and school and community relations indicators. The funded districts showed greater compliance with administrative indicators and non-funded districts with curriculum indicators. Teachers in funded districts perceived level of compliance with indicators in the following order (high to low): administrative, personnel, curriculum, and school and community relations. Principals in funded districts perceived level of compliance highest for administrative and personnel indicators and lowest for curriculum, and school and community relations indicators. Superintendents and counselors in funded districts perceived no difference in compliance with the different indicators. Superintendents in non-funded districts perceived highest compliance with curriculum and personnel indicators and lowest compliance with administrative, and school and community relations indicators. Teachers in non-funded districts perceived level of compliance with indicators in the following order (high to low): administrative, curriculum, personnel, and school and community relations. No difference in perceptions of level of compliance with the different categories of indicators was found between personnel who were employed at the time funding occurred and those who have been employed since funding ceased. Recommendations. The findings of this study have limited implications for reinstituting the CA&E grants. Further research should investigate the lasting effects of "seed money" on career education.
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A Portrait of an Iowa Woman Superintendent: A Study of Attributes and Barriers for Women Assessing the Position of Superintendent in Iowa Olsen, Gladys Idelle (Drake University, 2005-09)The problem: 10.5% of the superintendents and 71 % of teachers in lowa are female. The problem for this study was to identify barriers that women face in accessing the superintendency and the attributes needed to overcome ...