The Use of Coaching Techniques for Instructional Improvement by High School Principals in Iowa Schools
SubjectTeaching--Iowa; High school principals--Iowa; Coaching (Athletics)--Iowa; School administrators--Iowa
The problem: The purpose of this study was to analyze the reasons high school principals in Iowa identified as having an impact on the frequency of their axching activities. Coaching was defined as the ongoing use of observation and oral feedback by a principal for the purpose of improving instructional techniques in the classroom. The atmosphere of the feedback conference should be collegial rather than evaluative. Procedures. A stratified random sample of 137 Iowa high school principals and four teachers in their building were surveyed. Questionnaires were developed to measure coaching activities in the building. A Discrepancy Score was determined for each building by subtracting the average of the teachers' coaching scores from the principal's coaching score to give a more accurate picture of the actual coaching activities taking place. Principals also rated the reasons which affected the frequency of coaching activities: time, feelings of inadequacy as a coach, individual professional philosophy on the importance of coaching, and perceived teacher attitudes toward improving instruction. Findings. Using ANOVA and t-tests, it was determined that there was a discrepancy between what principals felt they were doing in relation to coaching and what the teachers perceived them to be doing. Principals rated their coaching activities higher than teachers rated them. Multiple was utilized to analyze the reasons principals gave which affected the frequency of coaching activities. The principal's attitude was found to be the only significant predictor of Discrepancy Scores in a school. A Pearson correlation was used to determine there was no correlation between the size of the school and the principal's attitude. Multiple regression was also utilized to determine that neither the reasons nor size of the school could predict the teachers' coaching scores alone. Conclusion. The principal's attitude (including feelings of inadequacy and professional philosophy) toward coaching needs to be changed if coaching for instructional improvement is to occur. Recommendations: Assisting principals in becoming more comfortable with coaching activities for instructional improvement is a key to bringing about effective transfer of training. As adult learners, principals need to learn this in a setting which includes coaching of their own new learning. TABLE
vi, 129 leaves. Advisor: Edward E. Hakanson
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